UMass Amherst (USA) – Interpreting Predictability Effects in Reading.
Vos rendez-vous sont prévus les 8 juin (16h-18h), 15 juin (16h-18h), 22 juin (16h-18h) et 29 juin (16h-18h) – Université Paris Diderot – Bâtiment Olympe de Gouges – 75013 Paris – salle 127
Lecture 1 : The basic phenomena – date : 8 juin 2015 (16h-18h)
In this lecture I will begin by reviewing basic characteristics of eye movements in reading. I will then discuss the effects of lexical predictability (as defined, usually, by cloze probability) that reliably emerge across many eye movement experiments. I will discuss the treatment of these effects in implemented models of eye movements in reading (e.g., E-Z Reader)
Lecture 2 et lecture 3 : Five empirical questions about predictability effects in reading, and what their answers might mean – date : 15 et 22 juin 2015
In these two lectures I take up five specific empirical questions. Integrating my own work and others’, I address the following: (a) Is cloze probability the best, or the only, useful measure of predictability? (b) What is the form of the relationship between predictability and reading time? (c) What are the effects of predictability manipulations on distributions of reading times? (d) Does the effect of predictability interact with the effect of word frequency? (e) How is the effect of predictability modulated by manipulations of parafoveal preview? I will argue that taken together, the answers to these questions suggest two important theoretical conclusions. First, while language comprehension does involve forward-looking, anticipatory processes, these are best understood as reflecting diffuse pre-activation of multiple lexical representations, rather than discrete prediction of specific words; and second, most if not all of the effect of predictability operates at the very earliest stages of lexical processing, or even at pre-lexical stages.
Lecture 4 : Two puzzles – date : 29 juin 2015
In this last lecture I will take up the question of how the conclusions that emerge from the eye movement literature should be reconciled with conclusions that emerge from the ERP literature. I will also take up the question of what cloze probability itself represents, in psychological terms. This lecture will rely on recent work in my laboratory involving co-registration of eye movements and EEG, and involving the collection of response times during the cloze task.